The Holocaust in Slovakia – period of Autonomy (6. 10. 1938 – 14. 3. 1939). Documents

Preface

 

Research on the Holocaust in Slovakia has mostly emerged after the fall of Communism in 1989. Until that time, this theme was more or less taboo1. In the 1990s a number of monographs and almanacs were published which presented new research results, mostly by Slovak historians but also ethnologists and cultural anthropologists2.

Also published were several books of documents3 from which however the edition Solving the Jewish Question in Slovakia (1938-1945) - 5 volumes is only a chronological listing, without holding to basic editorial documentary principles, while volumes 4 and 5 are only a sort of appendix of documents which did not fit into the original three volumes4.

The presented volume of documents is the first of the Holocaust in Slovakia series to be published by the Milan Šimečka Foundation, with the support of the Claims Conference, as part of the work of the non-governmental Holocaust Documentation Centre. In addition to the initial volume which is chronologically connected, the others will harmonize the principle of fact. Future volumes will address the issues of forced labour, Jewish camps, deportations to concentration camps, confiscations, the debates on the Jewish community held in executive and legislative bodies of the Slovak state, relations of the majority to the Jewish minority, and such questions.

Research on the Holocaust in Slovakia to the present has principally focused on the time of the Slovak State. But recent work has shown that even in the time of Autonomy, the bases of HSĽS (Hlinka’s Slovak Populist Party) Anti-Semitism, including the first deportations, were laid by their political leaders.

On the basis of the results of research in the 1990s it can be stated that in the period of Slovak Autonomy (6. 10. 1938 – 14. 3. 1939), various expressions of Anti-Semitism were sufficiently known5.

Only briefly shall I outline in particular the internal political development in this given period. The Munich Accords6 represented an essential foreign policy and surprisingly internal break in the history of Czechoslovakia. Beside the Central European dominance of Nazi Germany occurred a rapid internal stagnation of Czechoslovak parliamentary democracy and the transfer to an authoritarian  regime, in Slovakia with Fascist features.

Marker changes took place in Slovakia. The Catholic and Nationalist HSĽS, which during the First Czechoslovak Republic appeared as the verbal representative of the whole of Slovakia and all Slovaks (while never having more than one-third of votes in parliamentary elections), took advantage of the weakening of the First Republic and declared the Autonomy of Slovakia on 6. 10. 1938. With the consent of the Czechoslovak Government, a Slovak Autonomous Government was instituted and parliamentary elections were to be held. Czechoslovakia was to be gradually federalized. Under pressure, the other political parties in Slovakia supported this political step, with the exception of Social Democratic, Communist and Jewish parties. The Autonomy regime quickly became, with the active participation of HSĽS representatives, a one-party regime with a single view of political, cultural and even religious and spiritual development in the State. The bases of a liberal society and pluralistic democracy – political toleration of opposition, the searching for consensus and debate, a correct approach to minorities – were consistently eroded until they disappeared from the political life of Slovakia. In Czech, it came to an attempt to form a national “authoritarian state”7 with two political parties. The “common” Czechoslovakia was also changed, whether by the acceptance of a law on the Autonomy of Slovakia8 or the empowering law passed in December 1938 which essentially replaced the Parliament.

HSĽS was however not satisfied only with the seizing of power, but very quickly moved to a repressive regime, intervening in the activities of political parties (made all the easier in that “Czechoslovak” party could not turn to its “Czech” side, which was solving its own problems and gradually forming the two-party system in Czech). The change of agenda in the working of parties had two aspects – “voluntary”9 fusion or a ban on activities10. The loss of pluralism also meant the introduction of censorship11, the liquidation of all clubs except for the Hlinka’s Guards (the paramilitary HSĽS party organization)12, the “unification” of trade unions13, and so on.

It led also to a widespread interference in local and legal organizations in Slovakia14. At the same time, this was the era of the “purification15 ” of Slovakia, a searching for enemies and “Non-Slovaks”16. In such an atmosphere, elections were held in December 1938 to the Parliament of the Slovak Country (later called the Parliament of the Slovak Republic), for which only one candidates’ list was permitted. For better control, there were secretly formed special electoral districts for the individual nationalities in Slovakia (Slovaks, Czechs, Germans, Hungarians and Jews)17 Czechs and Jews were not allowed to stand. The character of the elections can be documented from the “Voters’ Instructions”, from which we quote: “Those saboteurs and enemies of the freedom of the Slovak nation who do not wish to vote for a Slovak Parliament, after being escorted from the separated district...must cast their ballots in a provided box. We believe however that there will not be found one Slovak, nor one loyal inhabitant of another nationality, who would wish to be a traitor to the freedom of the Slovak nation...”18 According to government results, the united candidates received 97.5% of the votes cast. For every 20,000 voters there was one mandate, and from 63 deputies, 50 were from HSĽS.

The Autonomy of Slovakia is covered on two “levels”, through which and with the help of which the regime ventilated its failures (wishing to disguise its incompetence) and directed the radicalism of its dissatisfied supporters. They were in particular attacks against the Czech community in the country – direct “Czechophobia”. In October and December, 1938, this manifested itself in purifications against the Czech community in Slovakia in the area of education19, including university20 administration,21 judiciary 22 police and others. In December 1938 this led to an agreement on the expulsion of 9,000 Czech employees from Slovakia. The Czech political representation, as well as their public, was surprised, frustrated and shocked by the calls of „Czechs out!“ coming from the far side of the Morava river. This political event and the everyday experience in Slovakia at the end of the Czechoslovakia played its role in later Czech-Slovak relations extending to the fall of Czechoslovakia in 1992. The attitudes of the German minority in 1938, and the post-Munich territorial demands of Hungary23 and Poland, were less of a surprise for the Czechs.

On the background of these generally anti-democratic steps by the new regime, a second factor was added – Anti-Semitism. Right from the beginning of the Autonomy, in the Manifesto of the Slovak Nation, the new HSĽS political elite declared, à la Goebbels, “We shall persist on the side of nations fighting against the Marxist-Jewish ideology of overthrow and violence”24 These anti-Semitic sirens, beginning only in the press, were progressively expanded to other forms, the most radical of which was the deortation25 of 7,500 Jews in November, 1938 to territory which was occupied by Hungary26  after the Vienna Arbitration. These deportations were a direct response by Jozef Tiso and HSĽS leaders against the 1st Vienna Arbitration (2. 11. 1938), at which the Slovak Autonomous Government met its first foreign policy defeat27. Tiso and his collaborators needed to find at this time a scapegoat responsible for the loss of the territory, and this the Jews became. Essentially, the deportations were a collective punishment. The xenophobic feeling of the HSĽS political elite as “victims” led to hatred and brought a blind and inhuman “solution”. The Jewish community in the country, described as “non-Slovak and anti-Slovak” was at the time the only minority without protection, and the Autonomy Government grabbed where it could. At the same time, it is necessary to mention that Tiso’s Order of 4. 11. 1938, on the basis of which the deportations of Jews without property were to be carried out, had to be conducted in the course of the few hours before the Hungarian army occupied the land granted to it at Vienna. Also according to Tiso’s Order, wealthier Jews were to be interned to prevent their escaping abroad with their property. Later this Order would be amended so that Jews, foreigners, could be deported from the country. It’s worth mentioning that these deportations were all the more surprising since in the 1st Czechoslovak state no organized anti-Semitism had existed, even though HSĽS had used anti-Semitism in their pre-election campaign literature28. The Parliamentary democracy however enabled it to systemize its anti-Semitism in legislation and Government Orders.

In the period of Autonomy there appeared a number of typically specific illustrations of anti-Semitism – from signs, through the boycott of Jewish stores to the pogrom demonstrations in the towns of Piešťany and Trnava, carried out primarily by the Hlinka’s Guard. Still, many of these attacks against Jews can be seen as features of the general anti-democratic approaches of the new regime; within the liquidation of political parties occurred the liquidation of Jewish parties, as part of the destruction of sports organizations the Jewish Maccabi club was also destroyed, individual voting booths for Jews was part of the general separation of ethnic groups, and so on.

However, I see as essential that in the Government itself (or its individual ministries) as well as in the specially created commission there were prepared a good number of anti-Semitic bills and Government Orders meant to regulate the Jewish community. Despite the fact that they tried to form new organizations – The Jewish Central Office (mostly Zionist) and the Economic Committee formed mainly by Orthodox Jews, they were never, with the possible exception of the question of emigration, equal partners for the Slovak political representation in decisions regarding their own problems. They had become simply objects through which the Government could fulfill its dreams. The Jews, who made up 4% of the Slovak population (roughly 89,000) thus gradually became second-class citizens.

The leaders of the state at that time maintained in their rhetoric that they were for legal and humane solutions to all problems, including the two “levels” already mentioned. In a speech from 2. 11. 1938, Jozef Tiso stated: “The Slovak Government will guarantee sufficient aid and protection to all inhabitants29 ”. After the deportations and attacks, Tiso even managed to say “The question of the Jews will be in Slovakia solved fairly, socially and humanely30”.

The second man in the regime of that time, Karol Sidor, announced in Bratslava’s Reduta on 22. 11. 1938: “But we will be just. We will not impair any religious organization, be it Protestant or Jewish, or other nationality, not even Czech. We will treat each according to law and justice, and indeed according to such law and justice as the Slovak nation introduces as justice and law in its legislative Slovak Parliament31 ”.

The edition of documents comes from archives chiefly in Slovakia (see Archives in which was conducted research). The editor conducted the research not only in the Slovak National Archives (SNA) in Bratislava (the Fund of Economics Office of the Government Leadership – Presidium, the Fund of the Ministry of Interior, the Fund of the Ministry of Economics, the Fund of the Ministry of Justice, the Police Administration Fund in Bratislava, the Government Leadership Office Fund, the 604 Fund (Hlinka’s Guard), but also in two local archives and in 23 regional archives in Slovakia. During the research, I took excerpts not only from District Offices, but also from Notaries’ Funds and from police stations. In such funds I often found documents which were not preserved in SNA archives. I also conducted research in the Military History Archive in Trnava, and my research was filled out in the Czech Republic (ČR), in the Ministry of Interior ČR, in the Military History Archives ČR and in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Archives ČR. This research was only accompanying, and mostly dealt with documents of Slovak provenance. In the Czech Foreign Affairs archives I dealt mostly with personal documents on Jozef  Faláth and Adolf Eichmann. In their Military History Archives I researched funds from military commanders who operated in Slovakia in 1938/39 (see Archives). I used funds from the 1st Czechoslovak Republic whose contents concerned Slovakia. One document which touched on the intervention of the British Ambassador to ČSR in favour of Jews deported from Slovakia in November 1938 was used. The research results were also used in footnotes.

Documents are published according to customary rules governing the publication of sources for recent history. Most are issued in their complete wording. In cases where only part of a quotation is used, this is signalled, excluded sections are marked thusly (....). Documents are published in their original language – Slovak or Czech. The editor has intervened in the language of the documents only minimally. Original transcriptions have been maintained. In the case of names of persons, visible misprints have been corrected if they appear in the same document.

In cases where a document was not preserved in the archive funds, the editor, as an exception, has also used documents from the press of the times (mainly from the newspaper Slovák and Slovenská politika). Concretely, for the Catholic church’s reaction to the Jewish question I used speeches by Catholic representatives reported in the press. Research into this problem can be, in the future, completed by the opening of the Bishop’s Office archives. In the 2nd chapter, the Slovak Autonomy Government and Central Bodies on the Jewish Question, I used texts from the period press since for example the meeting between J. Tiso and the representatives of the Jewish community was not preserved in the archives, just as their meeting with Minister of Education J. Sivák was not to be found in the funds.

In preparing the footnotes, the editor did not consider necessary to present basic data on those Slovak political figures who are generally known – for example, J. Tiso, K. Sidor,  and others. Text notes refer only to lesser known individuals or were used to increase knowledge on a given problem by pointing out the existence of documents of a similar nature.

The internal articulation of this book of documents corresponds to the outlining of problems in its preface which are encountered in Slovak histories of the Autonomy period. A certain preface was also the editor’s book The Jewish Community in Slovakia between Czechoslovak Parliamentary Democracy and the Slovak State in a Central European Context (Prešov, 1999). Within the individual chapters, the chronological approach is therefore maintained. At the heading of each document is a contentual digest (printed in italics), which is the work of the editor. (This digest is also printed in English in the contents so the reader may have a picture of the character of the document). Then the document itself is published. After the text of the document is given the quotation references (archive, fund, signature). The sources are again presented in italics. In the quotation references are used abbreviations which are described in the Archives part...

Contentual articulation:

  Chapter 1: Generally anti-democratic incursions which also affected the Jewish minority (banning of political parties, attacks on autonomous bodies, banning of sports organizations, regulation of voting for Slovak Federal Parliament). In this part are shown the basic anti-democratic tendencies at the time of the Autonomy which affected not only the Jewish community but also the Slovak majority (as well as other national minorities). The reactions of the Jewish community to the changed situation were demonstrated in the founding of the Jewish Central Office and the Economic Committee of Orthodox Jews in Slovakia, which however were not discussion partners for the political power of the time.

Chapter II: The Slovak Autonomy Government and central bodies and the Jewish question. This chapter at least presents the picture of that time’s Slovak representatives on the Question of Jews in Slovakia. A significant part of the documents are formed by bills (or Government Orders) on “solving” the Jewish Question. Many of them were used by the Slovak State for attacks against the Jewish community.

Chapter III: The Catholic Church on the Jewish Question. In this part are documents of state provenance which outline some positions of Catholic authorities on the Jewish Question. The opening of the Bishop’s Offices Archives should bring out more documents.

Chapter IV: Specific anti-Jewish actions. In the chapter are summarized concrete expressions of anti-Semitism in Slovakia.

IV.I. Interventions into religious life. The banning of “Eruv”. This banning, which was legalized by the Land Office (the Supreme Body of the State Administration in Slovakia) on 22. 10. 1938 interfered in the spiritual dimension of the Jewish community and its possibilities for religious life on Sabbaths and holidays. The Jewish community (mainly Orthodox Jews) used Eruv for lessening the strict regulations governing these feasts. In this way were “mixed” the private and public spheres which are very closely separated in the Jewish faith. (“Eruv – term applied to various symbolical acts which facilitate the acomplishment of otherwise forbidden acts on the Sabbath and festivals. The literal meaning of eruv is ´mixing´ and is probably connotes the insertion of the forbidden into the sphere of the permissible.” Encyclopedia Judaica. Jerusalem, 1971 pp. 849-50.)

IV.2. Concrete anti-Jewish manifestations. In this part are illustrated e.g. anti-Jewish demonstrations, signs, threat letters, and boycotts of Jewish shops as a foretaste of Arianization. These attacks were mostly conducted by the Hlinka’s Guard – the HSĹS paramilitary organization.

IV.3. Pogrom demonstrations in Piešťany and Trnava. In this chapter are caught the most wide-ranging anti-Jewish actions in the time of the Autonomy. Hlinka’s Guard (HG) attacks, but also by the militarized lumpen proletariat, who expected a quick resolution, in their favour, of the Jewish Question (mostly they were interested in Jewish property). Led in the town of Piešťany to a pogrom which resulted in a confrontation of the state power with HG radicals. In Trnava physical attacks on Jewish inhabitants had to be resolved by the President of the Autonomy Government.

IV.4. Deportations. The documents refer to the deportations (at the time named shove) of more than 7,500 Jews which was legislated by J. Tiso as head of the Autonomy Government and Interior Minister from 4. 11. 1938. These people were moved to territory which by the Vienna Arbitration 5-10. 11. 1938 were occupied by Hungary. This part is divided into central body documents (including Tiso’s Order on the deportations themselves). From the point of view of importance, I have subjectively given documents which confirm the aid in the formulation of the Deportation Orders of Adolf Eichmann, later the head organizer of deportations to concentration camps. This activity of Eichmann is even today not well known in Holocaust records. A radical part of HSĽS politicians was willing to accept this “aid” from a Vienna joined to Nazi Germany by the Anschluss of March 1938. I have also chosen documents which concern camps on the Slovak-Hungarian border (Veľký Kýr and Miloslavov) since they represent the first Jewish camps on Slovak territory. In the research remains a huge amount of material from individual districts which I used only as illustrations as typical images of various cases which occurred.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


CONTENTS

CHAPTER I: GENERAL ANTI-DEMOCRATIC INTERVENTIONS WHICH AFFECTED ALSO THE JEWISH COMMUNITY  (banning of political parties, attacks against autonomous bodies, banning of sports organizations, regulation of voting for the Slovak Federal Parliament). The reactions of Jews on the changed situation in the political sphere.

Document 1. Undated loyalty letter from the Zionist Jewish Party of the Slovak Autonomy Government immediately after its formation.

Document 2. Records from the session of delegates from the Topoľčany district from 16. 10. 1938 by which the composition of the district representation was changed on the basis of the principle “we shall no longer sit with Marxists, Jews and Communists”.

Document 3. Communication of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 19. 10. 1938, which enabled the dissolution of autonomous bodies unfavourable to HSĽS, and their replacement by Government Commissioners.

Document 4. Letter from citizens of the town of Turčianske Teplice (members of HSĽS) of 28. 10. 1938 which complained of the results of democratic local elections in 1938, and demanded the dissolution of the local representation and its replacement by Government Commissioners.

Document 5. Manifesto of Jews issued by the Jewish National Council.

Document 6. Letter of Jews from Žilina to the Slovak National Committee, in which they express their unreserved submission and obedience.

Document 7. Undated letter on the forming of the Jewish Central Office, from which were excluded in particular the former representatives of Zionism.

Document 8. Order of the Presidium of Land Office in Bratislava  (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) to District Offices on the halting and banning of further activity by the Jewish Party in Slovakia from 24.11.1938.

Document 9. Order of the Presidium of Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) on the halting and banning of further activity by the United Socialist Zionist Party of Workers – P.S. – AGFZ in Slovakia to the District Offices of 25. 11. 1938.

Document 10. Notification of the District Office in Kežmarok to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 2. 12. 1938 on the halting and banning of the activities of the Jewish Party in the district of Kežmarok.

Document 11. Order of the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) to all district offices of 2. 12. 1938 on forming electoral areas according to the nationality principle, as well s the complete secrecy of this step.

Document 12. Notification of the Police Administration Presidium in Bratislava to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 3. 12. 1938 on the halting and banning of further activities by the Jewish Party in Slovakia.

Document 13. Order of the Government of the Slovak Federal no. 70 of 5. 12. 1938 on the dissolution of gymnasium clubs, which also affected the Jewish Makabi club.

Document 14. Notification of the Police Administration Presidium in Bratislava to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) on the halting and banning of further activities by the United Socialist Zionist Party of Workers – P.S. – AGFZ in Slovakia of  7. 12. 1938.

Document 15. Loyal challenge of the Jewish Central Office of December 1938 to Jews to participate in the elections to the Parliament of the Slovak Country, 18. 12. 1938.

Document 16. Undated text of an anti-Semitic poster published by the Propaganda Office before elections to the Parliament of the Slovak Country, signed by Jozef Tiso.

Document 17. Decision of the District Office in Levoča in which membership in the District representation in Levoča is removed for members of the Jewish Party and the Czechoslovak Social Democrats.

Document 18. Records of 20. 12. 1938 on the dissolution and transfer of property of the Jewish gymnasium club Makabi in Nitra to the Hlinka’s Guard.

Document 19. Letter from the Central Office of Autonomous Orthodox Jewish Religious Community in Slovakia to the rabbis and Orthodox communities of 25. 12. 1938, in which they announce the formation of the Executive Committee of Judaism for the Slovak Country, which is to represent Orthodox Jews.

Document 20. Decree of the Police Administration Presidium in Bratislava of 29. 12. 1938 on dissolution of the Jewish gymnasium club Makabi in Bratislava.

Document 21. Speech of the Supreme Rabbi Hugo Stránsky in a Žilina synagogue on the occasion of the first session of the Parliament of the Slovak Country. He noted that lawmaking should be carried out according to the Old Testament Law, that there be no difference between legislation for domestics and for guests who are living among them.

Document 22. Invitation of the Jewish Central Office for the Slovak Country to a conference in Žilina to take place on 22. 1. 1939.

Document 23. Records of the Congress of the Jewish Central Office for the Slovak Country in Žilina, 22. 1. 1939.

Document 24. Declaration of the Ministry of Interior on dissolution of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Labour Party, the German Social Democratic Workers Party, the Jewish Party and the United Socialist Zionist Party of Workers for activities which “threaten the public interest”.

Document 25. Notification of the Police Administration Presidium in Bratislava to the Presidium of the State Office of 9. 2. 1939 on activities of the Jewish Central Office.

Document 26. Undated document from the Jewish Central Office, Department for Social Changes, which dealt with social changes and instructions for courses and training.

Document 27. Appeal of E. Herzbrunn of 21. 2. 1939 against the removal of membership in the community representation in Spišské Vlachy.

Document 28. Office register of the reply to representative of the Jewish Central Office, O. Löbel of 24. 2. 1939 to the Presidium of the Police Administration in Bratislava regarding the use of certification places which formerly were used by the Makabi gymnasium club.

Document 29. Article by the Supreme Rabbi of Nové Mesto nad Vahom, Armin Frieder “What order?” of 24. 2. 1939 published in the Jewish News, in which he reacted to the article Necessity to Make Order with the Jews in the Gardista newspaper (18. 2. 1939), in which they turned on the Talmud school.

Document 30. Notification of the Police Administration Presidium in Bratislava to the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 25. 2. 1939 on the formation of the Executive Committee of Orthodox Judaism for the Slovak Country.

Document 31. Article by O. Neumann Hyena on emigrees, which discussed the possibilities for emigration by Jews from Slovakia. Published in the Jewish News, 3. 3. 1939.

CHAPTER II: SLOVAK AUTONOMY GOVERNMENT AND CENTRAL BODIES ON THE JEWISH QUESTION (including drafts of laws)

Document 32. Government Order of 18. 10. 1938 on temporary arrangement of public notaries, which enabled the Minister of Justice to cancel the office of a public notary “who was not worthy of trust”.

Document 33. Extract from speeches by ministers Ferdinand Ďurčanský and Pavol Teplanský in Hlohovec which dealt with the Jewish problem. Published in the HSLS newspaper, Slovák, on 25. 10. 1938.

Document 34. Order of the Autonomy Government of 29. 10. 1938 on the introduction of universal Sunday rest in Slovakia.

Document 35. Proposal of the Ministry of Economy Presidium of 9. 11. 1938 on how to resolve the Jewish question. The proposal is the reaction to an Order by Josef  Tiso on deportations of 4. 11. 1938 and further documents concerning this problem.

Document 36. Records of the session of the Advisory Committee for Economic and Financial Issues and the Executive of the Financial Council for Slovakia, which, with the participation of the Minister of Economy, Pavol  Teplanský, on 9. 11. 1938 discussed the solving of the Jewish problem in the area of enterprising. Members decided that they wished to resolve this question in an evolutionary and staged fashion to avoid financial losses.

Document 37. Extract from a speech by Karol Sidor of 22. 11. 1938 in Reduta in Bratislava, published in Slovak Politics. In the speech he referred to a “solution: for the Jewish question in the Slovak Parliament”.

Document 38. Resolution of the Union of Slovak Medics of 29. 11. 1938, in which they refer to the Jewish Question and request for Jews studying medicine “numerus nullus”, and after 25 years “numerus clausus”.

Document 39. Discussion between the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Czech – Slovak Republics, František Chvalkovský and the British Ambassador B. C. Newton, which took place on 9. 12. 1938 and touched on discussions of a loan and the Question of Jews and refugees.

Document 40. Excerpt from an article by Alexandeer  Mach, Slovak State, which was published by the HSĽS newspaper Slovák, on 11. 12. 1938 and which dealt with the Jewish question.

Document 41. Jewish News press conference on the acceptance of representatives of the Jewish Central Office  by  Jozef  Tiso, Prime Minister, in January 1939.

Document 42. Letter from Presidium of Ministerial Council in Prague to the Minister of Economy of Autonomy Government of 11. 1. 1939 on forming two sub-committees of the existing committee for the study of the Jewish question. One was to examine the economic issue, the second the general.

Document 43. Presidium of Ministerial Council in Prague 16. 1. 1939 determined economic conditions under which Jews could emigrate. They were to leave 50% of their property in Č-SR, for 40% they could purchase goods to take with them and could take only the remaining 10% in cash. The document was registered as confidential.

Document 44. Letter from the General Director of the Czechoslovak Export Institution in Prague of 17. 1. 1939 containing documents on the relationship between the Jewish Question and Č-S export.

Document 45. The Slovak Country Government on 23. 1. 1939 formed a Commission for the Resolution of the Jewish Question in Slovakia. Its members were Karol Sidor, Government Minister, Mikuláš Pružinský, Minister of Economics, Pavol Teplánsky, Minister of Finance, Ferdinand Ďurčanský, Minister of Transport and Public Works, and  Jozef  Virsík, lawyer.

Document 46. Excerpt from article in Slovak Politics, 27. 1. 1939 in which they quote a speech by Jozef Tiso for foreign journalists where he spoke of the Jewish Question.

Document 47. Interview with Karol  Sidor, 27. 1. 1939 for the Exchange Telegraph in which he spoke of a legal, not a violent solution of the Jewish Question in Slovakia.

Document 48. Documents on the flight of Jewish capital from Slovakia. Letter of the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia)  to the Police Administration in Prague of 13. 2. 1939 in which is discussed the illegal export of 2.25 bln. Č-S crowns from Slovakia to Czech, and then onwards to Holland or Great Britain. A letter from F. Pokorný, the personal assistant to J. A. Baťa, of 28. 1. 1939 to  Július Stano in which are listed as an appendix data on the export of Jewish capital from Slovakia.

Document 49. Report from the Jewish News of 3. 2. 1929 on a meeting of a delegation from the Jewish Central Office with Minister of Education  Jozef Sivák.

Document 50. Minister of Justice Július Vančo of 1. 2. 1939 requested the Presidium of the Supreme Court in Bratislava and Levoča that judges of Jewish nationality or faith not be given court agendas.

Document 51. Excerpt from radical speeches by Alexander  Mach and Karol Murgaš in Rišňovce 5. 2. 1939 which referred to the Jewish issue.

Document 52. Proposal by the Department of Trade, Industry and Enterprising of the Ministry of Economy to the Presidium of the Slovak Autonomy Government in which they request the naming of J. Virsík as their member of the commission for resolving the Jewish Question in Slovakia.

Document 53. Interview by J. Frankel, representative of the Jewish Telegraph Agency with Jozef  Tiso, in which Tiso stated that the “Jewish Question will be in Slovakia resolved justly, socially and humanely”. The interview was published in the HSĽS newspaper, Slovák, 10. 2. 1939.

Document 54. Letter of Centre for Care of Refugees of the Ministry of Social and Health Care in Prague to the Police Administration in Bratislava, 21. 2. 1938, in which it is permitted for the Central Office of Jewish Religious Orthodox Communities in Bratislava to organize emigration to Palestine. In the letter is a request for the cooperation of the Police Administration in Bratislava in the organization of the transport of Jews abroad.

Document 55. Appearance of deputies Franz Karmasin, Pavol Čarnogurský, Gejza Rehák, Vladimír Moravčík, Július Magúth and Alexander  Mach at the Slovak Country Parliament 21-3. 2. 1939 on the Jewish issue.

Document 56. Letter from the Ministry of Finance in Prague of 2. 3. 1939, which explains the background to the agreement between Czecho-Slovakia, Great Britain and France on financial loans or financial gifts which were to be used for aid to emigration – mostly for Jews from Nazi Germany or the former Austria to third countries.

Document 57. Records of a meeting of the Slovak Export Commission which on 3. 3. 1939 debated a proposal by P. Fritsch on “resolution” of the Jewish Question.

Document 58. proposal by P. Fritsch on “resolution” of the Jewish Question. The proposal was discussed at a session of the Slovak Export Commission on 3. 3. 1939.

Document 59. Undated draft law arranging the stay of Jews in C-SR.

Document 60. Eight draft laws and Government Order by Ferdinand  Ďurčanský on “resolution” of the Jewish Question, submitted to individual ministries of the Autonomy Government on 3. 3. 1939. These consisted of the proposals: law on obtaining regional affiliation and native rights on the territory of the Slovak country (in § 3 of the bill is a definition of a Jew derived from the principle of religious affiliation), Government Order of the Slovak Country on partial arrangement of ownership and profit from land property in the Slovak Country, Government Order on the export of property from the territory of the Slovak Country, Government Order on the temporary arrangement and review of lawyer’s register in the territory of the Slovak Country, Government Order on doctor’s practices in the territory of the Slovak Country, Government Order on the arrangement of some concessionary enterprising, Government Order on the partial arrangement of the private employers power, Government Order on the exclusion of some persons from state public and other services on the territory of the Slovak Country.

Document 61. Government Order (Law) proposal on the ensuring of social and economic balance in relation to the Jewish Question by Karol  Mederly, presented at the session of the Commission for Resolving the Jewish Question in Slovakia in Carlton. In § 25 of his bill is a definition of a Jew, coming from the confessional and ideological principle (Communism).

Document 62. Undated note by the Ministry of Economy to the proposal of Karol Mederly of Government Order (Law) on ensuring social and economic balance in relation to the Jewish Question.

Document 63. Undated proposal of a Government Order by J. Virsík, member of the Commission for Resolving the Jewish Question in Slovakia on the establishment of a “Regional Centre for Jewish Affairs”, which would have responsibility for “resolving” the Jewish Question. In § 8 is a definition of a Jew.

Document 64. Jewish News report on the acceptance of a delegation of the Jewish Central Office by Minister of Education Jozef  Sivák, 7. 3. 1939.

CHAPTER III: CATHOLIC CHURCH ON THE JEWISH QUESTION

Document 65. Letter of 15. 11. 1938 from Jozef  Tiso as Prime Minister of the Slovak Country to bishops of Slovakia (in Trnava, Nitra, Spišská Kapitula and Banská Bystrica) for them to order parish priests to proceed strictly with the baptism of Jews or require their preparation for baptism.

Document 66. Answer from the Bishop of Trnava Pavol  Jantausch of 25. 11. 1938 to the letter of Jozef Tiso. The Bishop informed Tiso that in the case of Jews converting to the Catholic faith, it was required that they undergo a lengthy catechism.

Document 67. Excerpt from the article Dark Nights in the catholic magazine Spiritual Shepherd written by Š. Z. (probably Štefan Zlatoš). The article was published in the December 1938 edition. Its contents referred critically to Jews.

Document 68. Interview with the Jesuit’s chaplain, Rudolf Mikuš in the Slovák daily (published 10. 2. 1939) on the issue of Jews in Slovakia and the position of the Catholic Church on the Jewish Question.

Document 69. Lecture by the Dean of the Theology Faculty in Bratislava,  Anton Spesz on the theme Racism, the Measure of Morality, from 15. 2. 1939.

Document 70. Open letter from Rabbi Armin Frieder on the interview with the Jewish chaplain Rudolf Mikuš in the Slovák daily of 10.  2. 1939 in which he addressed the Jewish Question. The letter was published in the Jewish News, 17. 2. 1939.

Document 71. The answer of Rudolf  Mikuš to the open letter of Chief Rabbi Armin Frieder. The answer was published in the Slovák on 24. 2. 1939.

Document 72. Lecture by Štefan Zlatoš from the Catholic Theological Faculty in Bratislava on the theme, „Christianity and Judaism“, given 12.3.1939.

CHAPTER IV: CONCRETE ANTI-JEWISH ACTIONS

IV.I. Interventions in religious life. Banning of Eruv

Document 73. Order of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) from 22. 10. 1938 to all subordinate Offices on the conditions for licencing of Eruv.

Document 74. Licence of the Prešov Town Council of 12. 11. 1938 for the Jewish Orthodox Religious Community in the town of Prešov to perform Eruv.

Document 75. Order of the Government Commissioner of the town of Prešov removing Eruv.

Document 76. Appeal of the Jewish Religious Community in Prešov of 23. 12. 1938 against the banning of Eruv ordered by the Government Commissioner.

Document 77. Letter from the Government Commissioner of the town of Prešov to the District Office in Prešov of 11. 1. 1939, in which he justified the banning of Eruv. At the same time was submitted the appeal of the Jewish Religious Community against the ban.

Document 78. Decision of the District Office in Prešov to the Jewish Orthodox Religious Community of Prešov of 16. 6. 1939, by which the banning of Eruv was regulated.

Document 79. Appeal of the Jewish Orthodox Religious Community of Šarišské Lúky to the District Office in Prešov from 18. 11. 1938 against the banning of Eruv.

Document 80. Notification of the community notary in Šarišské Lúky to the District Office in Prešov of 19. 11. 1938 that he had removed Eruv.

Document 81. Letter from the community notary in Šarišské Lúky to the District Office in Prešov of 17. 1. 1939 in which he rejected the viewpoint of the Government Commissioner in Šarišské Lúky on the appeal of the Jewish Orthodox Religious Community of Šarišské Lúky regarding Eruv.

Document 82. Letter from the community notary in Šarišské Lúky to the District Office in Prešov of 31. 3. 1939 in which he presented, on the basis of a request from the Christian inhabitants of the community, a refusal to allow Eruv.

Document 83. Appeal of the Jewish Religious Community of Šarišské Lúky to the District Office in Prešov from 30. 7. 1939 against the decision of he Government Commissioner to refuse their request for Eruv.

Document 84. Decision of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 4. 12. 1939 on the basis of which the Jewish Religious Community of Šarišské Lúky must remove Eruv.

IV. 2.  Concrete Anti-Jewish Demonstrations

Document 85. Notification of the Špišské Podhradie Police Station to the District Office in Levoča of 11. 10. 1938 on anti-Jewish threat letters which several Jewish inhabitants of the town had received.

Document 86. Text of one of the anti-Jewish threat letters the Špišské Podhradie Police Station was holding, 11. 10. 1938.

Document 87. Report of the District Office in Trstená to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 17. 10. 1938 on anti-Jewish disturbances which occurred after pro-Slovak Autonomy demonstrations. The District Office accordingly banned gatherings in public places after 20.00 h. in Trstená, Tvrdošín and Lieska.

Document 88. Notification from the Sučany Police Station to the District Office in Martin of 18. 10. 1938 on anti-Jewish disturbances in Turany.

Document 89. Complaint from a Neo-Zionist Organization local group in Brno to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 24. 11. 1938 on unauthorized gatherings of the Hlinka’s Guard on the departure of a transport from Bratislava to Palestine.

Document 90. Notification from the Nitra Police Station to the District Office in Nitra of 26. 11. 1938 on anti-Jewish writings and posters in the town posted by the Hlinka’s Guard.

Document 91. Notification of the Police Administration in Bratislava of 30. 11. 1938 on the painting of anti-Jewish slogans on Michalská st. in Bratislava.

Document 92. The Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) on 2. 12. 1938 confirms a sentence against Jozef  Klempa and others for painting anti-Jewish slogans on the windows of Jewish shops on Michalská st. in Bratislava.

Document 93. A letter from the Police Administration in Bratislava to the Ministry of Interior Presidium, in which it commented on the complaint of the Neo-Zionist Organization branch in Brno on unauthorized gatherings of the Hlinka’s Guard on the departure of a transport of Jewish emigrants from Bratislava to Palestine on 22 and 23. 11. 1938.

Document 94. A request from the District Office in Trenčín to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 31. 1. 1938 to be able to issue a declaration on the basis of which Jews would not be allowed to hang portraits of Andrej Hlinka.

Document 95. Letter from the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) to the Regional Command of the Police Station in Bratislava and to the Hlinka’s Guard High Command of 16. 2. 1939, in which it proposes that the H.G.H.C. issue to its subordinate HG sections a regulation that they must not illegally move against Jews.

Document 96. Notification of the District Command in Nové Mesto nad Váhom to the Police Regional Command in Bratislava on anti-Jewish actions in the district of  30. 1. 1939. HG was watching who was shopping in Jewish shops, and sometimes acted against them. 3. 2. 1939 at the estate of the Jew Horváth in Častkovce, someone stole private telephone equipment and when the police came to investigate, essentially the whole village rose up against them and the landowner was forced to announce before a gathering of HG that he did not suspect them of the action.

Document 97. Notification of the Police Administration in Bratislava to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 3. 4. 1939 on riots by Hlinka’s Guard in Bratislava from October, 1938 to February, 1939.

IV. 3 Pogrom Demonstrations in Piešťany and Trnava

Document 98. Notification of the Piešťany District Office to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 12. 2. 1939 on the establishment of meetings of the Slovak-German Society.

Document 99. Notification of the Police Administration in Bratislava-Intelligence Service branch to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia), ref. IV, of 23. 2. 1939 on the situation in Piešťany, and on illegal leaflet actions.

Document 100. An anti-Jewish leaflet in Piešťany which was posted in the town on the night of 14. 2. 1939.

Document 101. Notification from the Piešťany District Office to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 8. 3. 1939 on disturbances in Piešťany on 3. 3. 1939.

Document 102. Decree of the Piešťany District Office of 4. 3. 1939, by which was announced a ban on gatherings in Piešťany, a curfew and a ban on the sale of alcoholic beverages.

Document 103. A request from both Jewish religious communities in Trnava of 24. 1. 1939 to Jozef Tiso to come to Trnava, where there were taking place widespread physical attacks against the Jewish community.

Document 104. The Presidium of the Slovak Government on 2. 2. 1939 decided on investigation of the complaint of the Jewish religious community in Trnava.

Document 105. Notification by the Trnava Police Station to the Trnava District Office of 24. 2. 1939, which confirmed the complaint of the Jewish religious community in Trnava.

Document 106. Denouncement and hearing of Jozef Bílik for anti-Semitic activities by the Police Station in Trnava on 24. 2. 1939.

Document 107. The District Court in Trnava announces to the Presidium of the Slovak Government on 1. 3. 1939 that there is order in the town after intervention of the Police.

IV. 4. Deportation of November 1938

IV. 4. 1. Deportations in the documents of the central state bodies

Document 108. Notification by the Police President in Bratislava J. Jusko on pro-Hungarian Jewish demonstration in Bratislava on 1. 11. 1938.

Document 109. Order of the President of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 2. 11. 1938 for the Jews to stay at the ceded territories and not to be able to come into Slovakia after the occupation of South Slovakia by Hungary after the I. Vienna Arbitration. Wandering Romas to be transported to the territories devolving to Hungary.

Document 110. Order of Jozef Tiso of 4. 11. 1938 to deport poor Jews from the territory of all Slovakia to the territories ceded to Hungary. At the same time Jews having property of more than Kč 500,000,- to be temporarily interned so that they could not leave Slovak territory.

Document 111. Change to the Order of Jozef Tiso of 4. 11. 1938. The deportations should concern only the foreign and homeless Jews. At the same time it was ordered to deport the Jews to their home communities.

Document 112. The letter of the Presidium of the Ministry of Economy of 5. 11. 1938 to the Home Office on the possible negative economic consequences of the deportations.

Document 113. The Official Record of 7. 11. 1938 on liquidation of the deportations ordered on 4. 11. 1938. The Order was issued by Jozef  Tiso in the presence of  President  of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) Julian  Šimko.

Document 114. Order of the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 8. 11. 1938 on liquidation of deportations ordered by Jozef  Tiso on  4. 11. 1938.

Document 115. Notification of the Presidium of the Police Administration in Bratislava on 9. 11. 1938 to Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) on the representative of “United Press of America” Joksi informing from Berlin on the number of deported people from Slovakia. The Police Director quoted a number of 4, 000 Jews only from Bratislava.

Document 116. The Order of the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 8. 12. 1938 upon which it was possible to take over the Jews from the camps (Veľký Kýr and Miloslavov) established during the deportations on the demarcation line back to the districts they were originally deported from.

Document 117. The Order of the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 10. 12. 1938 regarding abandoned Jewish enterprises.

IV. 4. 2. Deportations and Adolf Eichmann

Document 118. The Statement of Juloslav Janek of 9. 11. 1938 at the Police Administration in Bratislava on preparation of the deportations of the Jews with the support of Adof  Eichmann in Bratislava on 4. 11. 1938.

Document 119. The Statement of Juloslav Janek on 14. 11. 1938 at the Police Administration in Bratislava regarding the stay of A. Eichmann in Slovakia in October and November 1938.

Document 120. Undated Letter of Jozef  Faláth, in which he explains the preparation of the deportation of the Jews in November 1938 including the interest of Adolf  Eichmann in preparation of document of 4. 11. 1938 which started all deportation action.

IV. 4.3. Deportations and camps in “the no man’s land” on the Slovak-Hungarian borders

Document 121. Authorization of the Central Office of the autonomous Orthodox Jewish communities in Slovakia of 15. 11. 1938 for Heinrich Schwarz to negotiate with the state bodies about the Jews in the camp in Miloslavov.

Document 122. Notification of the liaison officer in Sereď, Major. J. Turanec of 24. and 25. 11. 1938 on the situation of the Jews in the camp on the border.

Document 123. Notification of the liaison officer of the Bratislava section – Colonel A. Šlejmar to the command Rafael in Trnava of 26. 11. 1938 on the Jews on the Slovak-Hungarian border.

Document 124. Accord signed on 26. 11. 1938 by the Slovak and Hungarian civil and military personnel on mutual exchange of violently deported Jews. The Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) ratified this agreement and ordered to provide the exchange on the reciprocity principle (one for one person).

Document 125. Letter of the Orthodox community to the Prime Minister J. Tiso on 29. 11. 1938 on the situation in the camps in Miloslavov and Veľký Kýr. The community representatives described the hard life of those deported in the “no man’s land” and proposed the return of the deported, the costs of which would be paid by the community.

Document 126. Three military notifications to the commander of Bratislava section on the hard situation of the Jews in the camps on the demarcation line – 26., 27. and 29. 11. 1938.

Document 127. Notification of the liaison officer of the Bratislava section – Colonel A. Šlejmar to General J. Bejl of 30. 11. 1938 on a visit of the camp in Miloslavov.

Document 128. Permission of the State Office of 3. 12. 1938 to supply food to the camp near Miloslavov.

Document 129. Report of the District Office in Bratislava of 6. 12. 1938 to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) on the situation of the Jews in the camp in Miloslavov.

Document 130. Notification of the District Office in Bratislava to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 14. 2. 1938 on liquidation of the camp in Miloslavov.

Document 131. Notification of the District Office in Nitra to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 21. 2. 1939 on taking over 158 deported Jews from the Veľký Kýr camp back to Slovakia.

IV. 4. 4. Deportations in individual districts

Document 132. Confirmation of the Police Station in Bánovce nad Bebravou of 6. 11. 1938 to Š. Korčmaroš that he handed over the things he took away from the Jewish inhabitants of the town Weiser and D. Roth prior to their deportation.

Document 133. Notification of the District Office in Bánovce nad Bebravou  to Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 9. 11. 1938 on the course of deportations.

Document 134. Notification of 17. 12. 1938 on taking over of three Jews in Veľký Kýr who were deported from the district of Bánovce nad Bebravou.

Document 135. Notification of the District Office in Banská Bystrica of 8. 11. 1938 to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) on the course of deportation in the district. Information about the collection of the Jewish inhabitants of Banská Bystrica which netted Kč 1,380,000,-.

Document 136. Notification of the District Office in Banská Štiavnica to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 8. 11. 1938 on the course of deportations in the district. The reactions of the Jews, as well as the critical attitude of the majority Slovaks to the deportations, are recorded in the Notification.

Document 137. The district commander in Bardejov G. Konka declared on 5. 11. 1938 a curfew and the prohibition of motion on the streets of Bardejov town. This was followed by the whole town raid on the Jews.

Document 138. Order of the District Office in Bardejov of 6. 11. 1938 to the subordinated administrative and police bodies regarding deportation proceedings including the creation of control patrols to prevent access to the town to the returning Jews who were deported.

Document 139. Notification of the District Office in Bardejov of 9. 11. 1938 to the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) on the course of deportations from the district. A raid was made in the town and 110 Jews were deported. (Another source talks about 308 Jews).

Document 140. Letter of the Jewish community of Brezno of 10. 11. 1938 which collected Kč 35,300 after the beginning of the deportations.

Document 141. Notification of the District Office in Čadca to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) – undated -  on the negative consequences of expelling the Jews from the district back to their home communities.

Document 142. The Official Record of 7. 11. 1938 in which the District Commander from Čadca asks what to do with the Jews who do not want to be accepted by the Polish side into their territory and who shall pay the costs for the deportations, because they have been paid by the District Commander himself. The telephone answer of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) from the same date – the deported foreign Jews have to be delivered to the Polish territory and the travel costs of the deportations will be compensated to the commander by the Land Office.

Document 143. Notification of the District Office in Čadca to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 7. 2. 1939 on the collection of the Jews in Čadca (Kč 250,000,-) and in Oščadnica ( Kč 15,000,-).

Document 144. Application of the District Office in Gelnica of 6. 11. 1938 to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) regarding the deportation proceedings in the case of Jewish physicians.

Document 145. Letter of the Catholic priest in Kluknava to the District Office in Gelnica of 6. 11. 1938 in which he asks to not deport Benci Eihorn, the cantor and shachter of the Jewish community in Krompachy, to his home community in Podkarpatská Rus (Under-Carphatian Russia).

Document 146. Notification of the Communal Notary in Krompachy to the District Office in Gelnica of 9. 11. 1938 on the course of the deportations in the ward of the notary and the reactions of the Jewish inhabitants.

Document 147. Notification of the District Office in Giraltovce to the Center for solving the Jewish Question in Slovakia at the Police Administration in Bratislava.

Document 148. Notification of the District Office in Ilava to Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 10. 11. 1938 on deportations from the district. The separation of families during the deportations is recorded in the notification.

Document 149. Notification of the District Office in Kežmarok to Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 5. 11. 1938 on the course of the deportations in the district. They were provided with the assistance of Hlinka’s Guard and also representatives of Deutsche Partei.

Document 150. Notification of the District Office in Kežmarok to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 8. 11. 1938, in which the District Commander admits that there had been a pogrom in the town and the state and police bodies had lost control over the town.

Document 151. Notification of the District Office in Levoča to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 8. 11. 1938 on the course of the deportations. The detained Jews (with property over Kč 500,000,-) had to deposit bail of Kč 10,000,- to be allowed to go home.

Document 152. Notification of the District Office in Liptovský Sv. Mikuláš to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 9. 11. 1938 on the course of the deportations from the district.

Document 153. Announcement of the Communal Notary Office in Liptovský Sv. Mikuláš  on the auction of the perishable food and fruit of the deported Jews.

Document 154. Notification of the District Office in Nitra to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 7. 11. 1938 on the intervention of Vienna legionaries into the deportations in Nitra.

Document 155. Notification of the District Office in Nové Mesto nad Váhom to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 6. 11. 1938 in which the District Office pointed out what consequences the expulsion of the Jews would have for the district. It proposes to appoint “a reliable individual” to administer the enterprises left by the Jews.

Document 156. Notification of the District Office in Nové Mesto nad Váhom to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 15. 2. 1939 on the course of deportations. The report includes information on the deportation of 76 Jews (including Czechoslovak citizens) and information on the camp in Veľký Kýr.

Document 157. Letter of the Jewish community from Nové Mesto nad Váhom to the District Office in Nové Mesto nad Váhom of 21. 12. 1938 saying that all deported Jews have returned.

Document 158. Letter of the District Office in Piešťany to the Command of military corps in Trenčín, from which is obvious that the army has been assisting to deport the Jews.

Document 159. Notification of the District Office in Poprad to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 8. 11. 1938 on the course of deportations.

Document 160. Response of the District Office in Poprad to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 23. 11. 1938 to the complaint of the Union of Wood Economy in Slovakia and Podkarpatská Rus (Under-Carphatian Russia) who intervened at the State Office against the arrest of two of their members.

Document 161. Notification of the District Office in Považská Bystrica to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 13. 12. 1938 on deportations in the district.

Document 162. The Application of the Jewish Community from Rozhanovce of 27. 11. 1938 to the District Office in Prešov for their cantor Š. Beihorn, belonging to Mukachevo, to be allowed to stay in the community because their religion expression was being endangered. The District Office allowed Š. Beihorn to stay till 29. 12. 1938.

Document 163. Notification of the District Office from Prešov to the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 30. 1. 1939 on the course of deportations. According to the report the Jews were temporarily staying in a mill near Nižný Olčvár.

Document 164. Official Record of a telephone call from Púchov District with Karol Klinovský from the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 5. 11. 1938 which included deportation proceedings.

Document 165. The District Commander in Ružomberok prohibited on 5. 11. 1938 the paying out of deposits of some Jewish inhabitants in all financial institutions in the town.

Document 166. The Notification of the Ward Notary in Hrabušice to the District Office in Spišská Nová Ves of 11. 11. 1938 on the course of the deportations.

Document 167. Notification of the Police Station Spišská Nová Ves to the District Office in Spišská Nová Ves of 8. 11. 1938 on the course of the deportations in the town.

Document 168. Notification of the District Office in Spišská Nová Ves to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 9.11.1938 on the course of deportations.

Document 169. Notification of the District Office in Spišská Stará Ves of 8. 11. 1938 to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) on the course of deportations.

Document 170. Notification of the District Office in Topoľčany to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 8. 11. 1938 on the course of deportations.

Document 171. Künzl – Jizerský envoy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs informed Bratislava on 14. 12. 1938 about the intervention of American Minister of Finance Henry Morgentau in favour of two of his relatives deported from Topoľčany.

Document 172. Response of the Presidium of the Slovak Government of 19. 12. 1938 to the Question from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the relatives of the American Minister Henry Morgentau. Both families were returned to Topoľčany.

Document 173. Record of the Police Station in Žabokreky nad Nitrou, district Topoľčany of 22. 12. 1938 with Tomáš Awsiank about the anti-Semitic situation in Dunajská Streda after its occupation by the Hungarians.

Document 174. Letter of A. Okál to J.  Tiso of 8. 11. 1938 about the course of deportations in Vranov.

Document 175. Notification of the District Office in Zlaté Moravce to the Presidium of the Land Office in Bratislava (The Supreme body of the State Administration of Slovakia) of 8. 11. 1938 on the course of deportations in the district.

 

 

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1 The basic Slovak work on the Holocaust in Slovakia by Ivan Kamenec, After the Trail of Tragedy, published in 1991, was written in the 1970s (see literature list).

2 BAKA, Igor: Jewish Camp in Nováky 1941-1944. Bratislava, 2001. BARKÁNY Eduard. DOJČ, Ľudovít: The Jewish religious Community in Slovakia. Bratislava, 1991. HOENSCH, Jorg K. BIMAN, Stanislav. LIPTÁK, Ľubomír: Emancipation of the Jews – Anti-Semitism – Persecution in Germany, Austro-Hungary, in Czech lands and in Slovakia. Bratislava, 1999. HRADSKÁ, Katarína: The Wisliceny Case. Nazi Advisors and the Jewish Question in Slovakia. Bratislava, 1999. LARIŠOVÁ, Petra: The Jewish Community in Bratislava in the Year 1940. Bratislava, 2000. LIPSCHER, Ladislav: Jews in the Slovak State 1939-1945. Print-servis, 1992. NIŽŇANSKÝ, Eduard: The Jewish Community in Slovakia between the Czechoslovak parliamentary democracy and the Slovak State in a central-European context. Prešov 1999. Working units and the units of the Slovak Army in 1939-1945. The 4th Working battalion (edited by Dezider Tóth) Bratislava, 1996. SALNER, Peter: They Survived the Holocaust. Bratislava 1997.  SALNER, Peter: The Jews in Slovakia - Between Tradition and Assimilation. Bratislava, 2000. Tragedy of Slovak Jews (edited by Dezider Tóth) Banská Bystrica, 1992. The Jews in Bratislava (compiled by Peter Salner) Bratislava, 1997. The Jewish  Community in Slovakia. The period of Autonomy. Comparison with that-time events in Austria. (edited by Eduard Nižňanský) Bratislava, 2000. The Jews in Bratislava. (edited by Peter Salner) Bratislava, 1997. The Jewish Community in Slovakia. The period of Autonomy. Comparison with events of that time in Austria. (edited by Eduard Nižňanský) Bratislava, 2000. The Jews in Interaction (edited by Egon Gál) Bratislava, 1997. The Jews in Interaction II (edited by Egon Gál) Bratislava, 1999. Many studies dealing with this subject were published also in the anniversary volume Studia historica Nitriensia (published by the Department of History of the Constantine Philosopher University of Nitra, edited by Eduard Nižňanský, 8 volumes up to now). The Institute of Judaism of Comenius University in Bratislava is also involved in the research of holocaust. Along with the Milan Šimečka Foundation a non-state Documentary Centre of the Holocaust works, supported by the Claims Conference. There is also a Jewish Museum in Bratislava which is issuing the Studia judaica Slovaca.

3 SNP. The Germans and Slovakia. (edited by Vilém Prečan) Bratislava, 1971. The Solution of the Jewish Question in Slovakia (1938-1945) Documents part 1-5. (edited by Ladislav Hubenák). Vatican and the Slovak Republic (1939-1945) Documents.  (edited by Ivan Kamenec, Vilém Prečan, Stanislav Škorvánek). Bratislava, 1992. NIŽŇANSKÝ, E.: The Jewish Community in Slovakia between the Czechoslovak Parliamentary Democracy and the Slovak State in the Central-European Context. Prešov, 1999. The Jewish  Community in Slovakia. The period of Autonomy. Comparison with events of that time in Austria. (edited by Eduard Nižňanský) Bratislava, 2000.

4 Also foreign authors are involved in the research of the Holocaust – historians from Israel (Yehuda Bauer, Robert Büchler, Gela Fatran, Yeshayahu A. Jelinek,  Livia Rothkirchen, etc.), Czech historians (Miroslav Kárný, Vlasta Kladivová and others.),  Konrad Kwiet (Sydney), Tanja Tönsmaier  (Berlin), etc. 

5 See e. g.  NIŽŇANSKÝ, E.: The Jewish Community in Slovakia between the Czechoslovak Parliamentary Democracy and the Slovak State in the Central-European Context. Prešov, 1999. The Jewish  Community in Slovakia. The period of Autonomy. Comparison with events of that time in Austria. (edited by Eduard Nižňanský) Bratislava, 2000. Further see the literature list.

6 The Munich Accord signed on 29 Sep 1938 in Munich by Germany, Italy, France and  Great Britain, by which the I. ČSR lost 28,000 km² and 3.8 million citizens in favour of Nazi Germany. Great Britain and France accepted by this act the great power dominance of the 3rd Reich in Central Europe and sacrificed the only real democratic state in Central Europe.

7 See details in RATAJ, J.:  On the Authoritative National State. Prague, 1997. RATAJ, J.: Crisis of Czech thinking during the 2nd Republic. In: From the 2nd Republic. Prague, 1993, pp. 6-154.

8 See details in KVAČEK, R.: Negotiations on the Czechoslovak National Status in the Year 1938. In: Acta Universitatis Carolinae. Philosophica et Historica 1, 1977, pp. 105-143. BYSTRICKÝ, V.: National Status and State-juridical Programs in Slovakia in 1938. In: Historical magazine, 40, 1992, 1, pp. 52-67.

9 It happened on 8 Nov 1938 – the HSĽS – the Party of National Unity, had been joined by agrarians,  the Czechoslovak Populist Party (M. Mičura), national socialists, traders, national unionists and Nazis. The agreement of a part of the Slovak Parliament came later.

10 The Ministry of Interior banned activities of the Communist Party on 9 Oct 1938. The State Office directed on 16 Nov 1938 to stop and ban further activities of the Czechoslovak Social-Democratic Labour Party in Slovakia. On 22 Nov 1938 they also stopped the activities of The Deutsche sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei in Slovakia. On 24 Nov 1938 they stopped and banned activities of the Jewish Party in Slovakia. On 25 Nov 1938 they stopped and banned activities of the Unified Social-Zionistic Labour Party in Slovakia. On 24 Nov 1938 similarly ended up also the nationalist-oriented SNS (Slovak National Party).

11 See e. g. articles The Whole Press in Slovakia under governmental control. In: Slovák, 29 Oct 1938, p. 3. Governmental Press Commissars. In: Stredoslovenské noviny, 4 Nov 1938, p. 1. The Office for Propaganda which started up at the end of Oct 1938 with at the head A. Macho also played its role.

12 See e.g. articles All military organizations in Slovakia dissolved. In: Slovenská pravda, 30 Oct 1938. All gymnasiums in the property of Hlinka’s Guards. In: Slovák, 16 Dec 1938, p. 1. On 29 Oct 1938 Karol Sidor said in Ružomberok: „As a small example of our factionalism he said that in Bratislava were 895 associations and in Košice 480. Why did so many associations exist? Why there were so many political parties? Because many long for leadership, even at the expense of disloyalty to Slovak interests.“ In: Slovák, 1 Nov 1938, p. 3.

13 See e.g. the articles Union Unification. In: Slovák, 23 Nov 1938, p. 4. The article  Importance and Necessity of Union Organizations (R. Čavojský). In:  Slovák, 1 Dec 1938, p. 2. The article Important Rresolution of Christian Unionists. In:  Slovák, 8 Dec 1938, p. 5. The important role in the process of “unification” of the union played Rudolf Čavojský.

14 NIŽŇANSKÝ, E.: Intervention into autonomous bodies during the period of the Slovak Autonomy in 1938/39.  In: Studia historica Nitriensia IX/2001 (in press).

15 As early as on 12 Oct 1938 the Slovák published on the first page an article „The cleaning starts“.

16 K. Sidor had already found enemies on 19 Oct 1938:“... people of the old regime slowly wake up from the spell ...weave intrigues, gather at secret sessions, make themselves ready for an attack and want to mislead the Slovak movement into an impasse again...But also Czechs come to life in Slovakia. Hidden in branches of Czech parties in Slovakia...“. Slovák, 19 Oct 1938, p. 1.

17 NIŽŇANSKÝ, E.: The votes to the concilium of the Slovak Country in the year 1938. In: Studia historica Nitriensia VII/1998, pp. 163-204. NIŽŇANSKÝ, E.: Czech Community in Slovakia and Votes to the Parliament of the Slovak Country in Dec 1938. In: Modern history 7, Prague, 1999, pp. 231-168.

18 Slovák, 14 Dec 1938, p. 1.

19 See e.g. an article A new era for Slovak educational system has begun. In the spirit of Andrej Hlinka! – Paľo Čarnogurský in place of Kalousek. In: Slovák, 13 Oct 1938, p . 2.

20 See e.g. articles Changes at the University of Bratislava. In: Slovák, 27 Oct 1938, p. 3.  We will put the education of youth on a Slovak basis. In: Slovák, 26 Nov 1938, p. 3 and others. See e.g. BYSTRICKÝ, V.: Displacement of Czech state employees from Slovakia in the years 1938-39. In: HČ 45, no. 4, pp. 596-611. MLYNÁRIK, J.: Czech Professors in Slovakia. Part I. Czech professors and their students at Comenius University in the years 1919-1949. Prague 1994. NIŽŇANSKÝ, E.: Democracy and Nationalism. In: Studia historica Nitriensia V. Nitra, 1996, p. 227-246. NIŽŇANSKÝ, E.: On the problem of the relationship between Slovaks and Czechs during the period of the 2nd Czechoslovak Republic. In: Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomoucensis. Historica 27-1996, pp. 189-205. RYCHLÍK, J.: Czechs and Slovaks in the 20th century. Czech-Slovak relations in 1914-1945. Bratislava, 1997.

21 See e.g. an article Free Leading Places for Slovaks!. In: Slovák, 10 Nov 1938, p. 3.

22 See e.g. an article Judiciary into Slovak hands. In: Slovenská pravda, 26 Nov 1938, p.3.

23 See the note 23 on the 1st  Vienna Arbitration, which had been guaranteed by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy without the presence of the Great Britain and France. This was the proof of the dominance of the 3rd Reich in the area of Central Europe after Munich.

24 Slovenská  pravda, 8 Oct 1938, p. 1.

25 The author considers the forced and violent escorting of about 7,500 Jews from Slovakia to the new Slovak-Hungarian border  as a deportation, because in the first documents it is not even mentioned...

26 See JAMRICHOVÁ, A.: The Jewish Community in Topoľčany during the period of Slovak Autonomy. In: The Jewish Community in Slovakia. The period of Slovak Autonomy. Comparison with events of that time in Austria. Bratislava, 2000, pp. 9-40. KAMENEC, I.: The Status of the Jewish citizens during the period of Slovak Autonomy. In: The Jewish Community in Slovakia. The period of Slovak Autonomy. Comparison with events of that time in Austria. Bratislava, 2000, pp. 41-7.  KAMENEC, I.: The Jewish Question and the means of its solution in the time of Slovak Autonomy.  In: Nové Obzory, 10, 1968, pp. 155-180. KÖNÖZYOVÁ, L.: The deportation of the Jews from Nitra during the Slovak Autonomy 4-5 Nov 1938 in documents. In: Studia historica Nitriensia VIII/2000, pp. 241-298. KÖNÖZYOVÁ, L.: The Jewish Question in Nitra during the period of Slovak Autonomy. In: The Jewish Community in Slovakia. The period of Slovak Autonomy. Comparison with events of that time in Austria. Bratislava, 2000, pp. 49-82. NIŽŇANSKÝ, E.: Die Deportation der Juden in der Zeit der autonomen Slowakei im November 1938. In: Jahrbuch fűr Antisemitismusforschung 7. Frankfurt a. M/New York, 1998, p.20-45. NIŽŇANSKÝ, E.: Deportation of Jews in November 1938 from Slovakia in reports of the contact officers. In: Studia historica Nitriensia VII/1998, pp. 259-286 NIŽŇANSKÝ, E.: Deportation of Jews from Slovakia in November 1938. In: OS 4/2000, pp. 8-12. NIŽŇANSKÝ, E. Die jüdische Gemeinde in der Slowakei 1938/39. In: Jahrbuch 2000. Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes. Wien, 2000, pp. 116-133. NIŽŇANSKÝ, E.: Responses to the deportation of Jews during the Slovak Autonomy  in European press written in German. In: Studia historica Nitriensia VI/1997, pp. 69-80.  NIŽŇANSKÝ, E.: First deportation of Jews from the Slovak area in November 1938 and the role of Jozef Faláth and Adolf Eichmann. In: The Jewish Community in Slovakia. The period of Slovak Autonomy. Comparison with events of that time in Austria. Bratislava 2000, pp. 89-111. NIŽŇANSKÝ, E.: The Jewish Community in Slovakia between the Czechoslovak parliamentary democracy and the Slovak State in a Central European context.  Prešov, 1999. NIŽŇANSKÝ, E. – SLNEKOVÁ, V.: The deportation of Jews during the Slovak Autonomy 4-5 Nov 1938. In: Studia historica Nitriensia V/1996, pp. 66-184. PSICOVÁ, K.: The Jewish Question in  Piešťany during the Slovak Autonomy. In: The Jewish Community in Slovakia. The period of Slovak Autonomy. Comparison with events of that time in Austria, Bratislava 2000, pp. 112-136. SLNEKOVÁ, V.: „The Jewish Question“ on the town level – Trnava during the period of Slovak Autonomy. In: Studia historica Nitriensia V/1996, pp. 185-203.  ZAVACKÁ, K.: Judicial Means of Intervention against the Jewish Community during the Slovak Autonomy. In: The Jewish Community in Slovakia. The period of Slovak Autonomy. Comparison with events of that time in Austria. Bratislava, 2000, pp. 137-142. The Jewish Community in Slovakia. The period of Autonomy. Comparison with that-time events in Austria. (edited by Eduard Nižňanský) Bratislava, 2000.

27 Slovakia lost after  the   1st Vienna Arbitration 10,423 km2 with 859,885 citizens, which included 276,287 Slovaks, 505,808 Hungarians, 26,181 Jews, 8,967 Germans and 1,829 Ruthenians. For details see e.g. HOENSCH, J. K.: Der ungarische Revisionismus und die Zerschlagung der Tschechoslowakei. Tübingen, 1967, pp. 189.a n.

28 Anti-Semitism in Slovakia showed its economic dimension – The Jews exploit us; the religious dimension – they are not Christians (even “the Jews killed Christ“); the national dimension – the Jews Hungarianize and by the political dimension – they are Liberals – even sometimes Marxists.

29 Slovák, 6.11.1938, p. 2

30 Národné noviny (National newspaper), 10.2.1939 p. 1

31 Slovenská politika (Slovak politics) 22.11.1938, p. 1